US Desk LHVnews; In previous articles, the Constitution of the United States history was presented. Here, the amendments and the constructive and practical criticisms to The Constitution of US are studied.
Article Five of the United States Constitution describes the process whereby the Constitution may be altered by proposing amendments. As spelled out in Article V, the Constitution can be amended in one of two ways.Amendment can take place either by a vote of two-thirds of both the House of Representatives and the Senate or by a convention called for this purpose by two-thirds of the state legislatures.
To become part of the Constitution, amendments should be ratified either by three-fourths of the various state legislatures or state ratifying conventions held in three-fourths of the states.
Following the ratification of The Constitution, the first issue raised by writers and critics, was to guarantee constitutional and civil rights, and not restricting it by the newly established government. Most debates were triggered by anti-federalists who were against forming a central powerful government.
With public pressure and widespread distrust of the newly emerging government, anti-federalists, who suffered a defeat in The Constitution ratification, sought to guarantee constitutional and civil rights by proposing amendments. On the other hand, supporters of The Constitution and the new government, supported amendments on freedom of speech, thought and religion to neutralize anti-federalists harsh criticisms of The Constitution and federal government.
On Dec. 15, 1791, three-fourth of the states ratified the Bill of Rights or the first ten amendments to the US constitution.
The United States Bill of Rights includes freedom of speech, right to keep and bear arms, protection from quartering of troops neither in peace or war, due process, trial by jury and rights of the accused, prohibition of unusual punishment, and protection of people rights and powers.
Although the amendments are part of the US constitution, further limitations imposed following various incidents. The most recent one is the introduction of Homeland Security Act in the aftermath of the September 11 attacks which led to further limitations against US citizens, such as establishing sharing information centers inside US intelligence agencies aimed at spying US citizens. Earlier, incidents like Watergate, Iran-Contra, and Kennedy's assassination had led to more limitations in US society.
In addition, intelligence agencies like the National Security Agency started eavesdropping and extensive spying on US citizens. Earlier, similar activities have been conducted secretly. However, such measures have been intensified and extended in early 21st century.